The Middle Bronze Age – roughly 1900-1500 BCE (although there are plenty of arguments to move it one way or the other by 50-100 years) is a period of reawakening for urbanism in the southern Levant. after a dark age of about 350 years, where no cities are found, cities begin to emerge once again, building palaces, temples, and most notably fortifications. These fortifications are one of the hallmarks of the period, as they many times are the reason behind the shape of the tells we know today. These fortifications include earthworks – known as ramparts and glacis – which encompassed the cities. Some have argued against labeling the structures fortifications, preferring alternate explanations, linked to more “social” reasoning behind their costruction.
The survey revealed that there was a considerable presence of Middle Bronze Age pottery at Tel Burna. The rough estimate of surface scatter (the area where artifacts found dating to a certain period) is 5 hectares. this would mean that Tel Burna was a small city, and may have been encompassed by the earthworks mentioned above. It would be interesting to see – through excavation – if the unique shape of the tell is a result of the construction of a rampart!